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Few Facts About Sikhism

Five Virtues

  1. Sat (truth)

  2. Santokh (contentment)

  3. Daya (compassion)

  4. Nimrata (humility)

  5. Pyaar (love)

Five Thieves/Evils for Human

  1. Kaam (lust)

  2. Krodh (anger)

  3. Lobh (greed)

  4. Moh (attachment, e.g. to material things or people)

  5. Hankaar (ego, pride)

(Cardinal Commandments)

Kurehta means conduct from which to refrain or keep away from

  1. Cutting or trimming of hair or Kesh,

  2. Fornication or adultery,

  3. No Kuthha (Halal) meat

  4. Use of tobacco and intoxication drug.



Khalsa which means 'pure' is the name given by Guru Gobind Singh to all Sikhs who have been baptised or initiated by taking Amrit in a ceremony called Amrit Sanchar. The first time that this ceremony took place was on Baisakhi, which fell on 30 March 1699 at Anandpur Sahib in Punjab, India. 

Five K's (Kakar's)

After Baptism (Amrit Sanchar) ceremony, each individual has to keep/wear the following kakars-

  1. Kesh (uncut hair)

  2. Kara (a steel bracelet)

  3. Kanga (a wooden comb)

  4. Kaccha - also spelt, Kachh, Kachera (cotton underwear)

  5. Kirpan (steel sword)

Nitnem (Daily Prayers)

Five Banis (Prayers) must be recited every morning and two every evening:

Morning Banis (Prayers):

  1. Japuji Sahib

  2. Jaap Sahib

  3. Tav Prasad Swaiye Sahib

  4. Chaopai Sahib

  5. Anand Sahib

Evening Banis (Prayers)

  1. Rehras Sahib (Evening)

  2. Kirtan Sohila Sahib (Before Sleep)

Sikh Gurus

* Date of birth- Prakash Purab;                   *Date of guruship- Gurta Gaddi Diwas;              *End of worldly journey date:  Joti Jot Diwas;   

1. Guru Nanak Dev Ji

Prakash Purab             Gurta Gaddi Diwas      Joti Jot Diwas

15-Apr-1469                   -                                        22-Sep-1539

Mother name               Father name                

Mata Tripta Ji                Mehta Kalu Ji                   

Major life highlights:

  • Prakash Purab as per Sikh calendar: 15th Katak Puranmash

  • Joti Jot Diwas as per Sikh calendar:

  • Founded Sikhism

  • Spiritual revelations registered as 974 hymns in Guru Granth Sahib

  • Rejected the authority of the Vedas

  • Preached the new idea of God as (Supreme, Universal, All-powerful and truthful, Formless, Fearless, Without Hate, Self-existent, Ever-lasting creator of all things, The eternal and absolute truth)

  • Attacked the citadel of the Hindu caste system, promoting equality of all

  • Emphasized the equality of women

  • Rejected the path of renunciation; emphasized leading a householder's life

  • Condemned the theocracy of Mughal emperor Babar 

  • Started the institution of Guru ka Langar

  • Undertook 4 major journeys, travelling far and wide (including visits to Haridwar, Varanasi, Tibet, Srinagar, Lahore, Mecca, Medina, Baghdad, Syria, Turkey, Kabul, Kandhar, etc.)

3. Guru Amar Das Ji

Prakash Purab             Gurta Gaddi Diwas      Joti Jot Diwas

5-May-1479                    26-Mar-1552                  1-Sep-1574

Mother name:              Father name:               

Mata Sulakhni Ji*        Tej Bhan Bhalla Ji

(also knows as Bakht Kaur Ji)                   

Major life highlights:

  • Prakash Purab as per Sikh calendar: Vaisakh Sudi 14th, (8th Jeth), Samvat 1536

  • Joti Jot Diwas as per Sikh calendar: Bhadon Sudi 14th, (1st Assu) Samvat 1631,

  • 869 verses including Anand Sahib in the Guru Granth Sahib

  • Established Manji & Piri system of religious missions for men and women respectively

  • Strengthened the Langar community kitchen system

  • Preached against the Hindu society's Sati system (burning alive of a wife at the pyre of her deceased husband), advocated widow-remarriage;

  • Asked the women to discard "Purdah" (veil worn by Muslim women).

  • Asked Akbar to remove the toll-tax (pilgrim's tax) for non-Muslims while crossing Yamuna and Ganges Rivers

5. Guru Arjan Dev Ji

Prakash Purab        Gurta Gaddi Diwas      Joti Jot Diwas 

15-Apr-1563              1-Sep-1581                    30-May-1606

Mother name          Father name:               

Mata Bhani Ji           Guru Ram Das Ji                   

Major life highlights:

  • Prakash Purab as per Sikh calendar: Vaisakh Vadi 7th, (19th Vaisakh) Samvat 1620

  • Joti Jot Diwas as per Sikh calendar: Jeth Sudi 4th (1st Harh) Samvat 1663

  • Compiled the Guru Granth Sahib, and installed it at Sri Harmandir Sahib on Bhadon Sudi 1st Samvat 1661 (August/September 1604), A landmark event in Sikh history

  • Completed the work on two sacred tanks (Sarowars)     Santokhsar and Darbar Sahib, Amritsar

  • Built Sri Darbar Sahib under his supervision

  • Contributed about 2000 verses to the Guru Granth Sahib

  • Founded the town of Tarn Taran Sahib near Goindwal Sahib 

  • Built a house for Lepers.

  • Was tortured and executed on the orders of the Mughal Emperor Jahangir 

  • Hailed as the first martyr of Sikh religion, and as Shaheedan-de-Sartaj (The crown of martyrs)

7. Guru Har Rai Ji

Prakash Purab             Gurta Gaddi Diwas      Joti Jot Diwas

16-Jan-1630                    3-Mar-1644                    6-Oct-1661

Mother name:              Father name:               

Mata Nihal Kaur Ji      Baba Gurditta Ji                

Major life highlights:

  • Prakash Purab as per Sikh calendar: 

  • Joti Jot Diwas as per Sikh calendar: Kartik Vadi 9 (5 Kartik), Bikrami Samvat 1718

  • Sheltered Dara Shikoh; persecuted by Aurangzeb who framed charges of anti-Islamic blasphemy against Guru Ji and Sikh verses of Guru Granth Sahib

  • Established an Aurvedic herbal medicine hospital and a research centre at Kiratpur Sahib. 

  • Established a strict orders for the Sikhs against any alteration of original verse in Guru Granth Sahib.

9. Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

Prakash Purab        Gurta Gaddi Diwas      Joti Jot Diwas           1-Apr-1621                   20-Mar-1665                 11-Nov-1675

Mother name:         Father name:               

Mata Nanki Ji          Guru Har Gobind Ji                  

Major life highlights:

  • Prakash Purab as per Sikh calendar: Vaisakh Vadi 5, (5 Vaisakh), Bikrami Samvat 1678

  • Joti Jot Diwas as per Sikh calendar:

  • Guru Sahib written Gurbani in fifteen Raagas apart from 57 salokas, got included in Guru Granth Sahib by the 10th guru, Guru Gobind Singh Sahib.

  • Guru Sahib was also a great poet and thinker.

  • Opposed the forced conversions of the Hindu Kashmiri Pandits by Muslims

  • Was consequently persecuted, imprisoned, tortured and executed under the orders of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb. Contributed many hymns (Shlokas) to Guru Granth Sahib

  • Spread Sikhism far and wide to Bihar and Assam

  • Sri Guru Tegh Bahadur Ji ‘Hind di chadar’ sacrified his life for the cause of Dharma, truth and the betterment of humanity.

11. Guru Granth Sahib Ji

Prakash Purab            Gurta Gaddi Diwas      Joti Jot Diwas         -                                      7-Oct-1708                     -

Mother name:              Father name:               

-                                        -                

Major life highlights:

  • Final and last, eternal living Guru

2. Guru Angad Dev Ji

Prakash Purab             Gurta Gaddi Diwas      Joti Jot Diwas

31-Mar-1504                   7-Sep-1539                    29-Mar-1552

Mother name               Father name                

Mata Ramo Ji                Baba Pheru Ji                   

Major life highlights:

  • Prakash Purab as per Sikh calendar: 5th Vaisakh Samvat 1561 

  • Joti Jot Diwas as per Sikh calendar:

  • Spiritual revelations registered as 63 Saloks (stanzas) in Guru Granth Sahib

  • Established new religious institutions to strengthen the base of Sikhism

  • Standardized and popularized the Gurumukhi Script

  • Opened many new schools

  • Started the tradition of Mall Akhara for physical as well as spiritual development

  • Popularized and expanded the institution of Guru ka Langar 

4. Guru Ram Das Ji

Prakash Purab             Gurta Gaddi Diwas      Joti Jot Diwas

15-Sep-1524                   1-Sep-1534                     1-Sep-1581

Mother name:              Father name:               

Mata Daya Vati Ji         Baba Hari Das Ji                   

Major life highlights:

  • Prakash Purab as per Sikh calendar: Kartik Vadi 2nd, (25th Assu) Samvat 1591

  • Joti Jot Diwas as per Sikh calendar: Bhadon Sudi 3rd (2nd Assu) Samvat 1638

  • 638 hymns in 30 ragas in the Guru Granth Sahib, which include 246 Padei, 138 Saloks, 31 Ashtpadis and 8 Vars

  • Composed the four Lawans (stanzas) of the Anand Karaj, a distinct marriage code for Sikhs separate from the orthodox and traditional Hindu Vedi system

  • Laid the foundation stone of Chak Ramdas or Ramdas Pur, now called Amritsar

  • Strongly decried superstitions, caste system and pilgrimages 

6. Guru Har Gobind Ji

Prakash Purab             Gurta Gaddi Diwas      Joti Jot Diwas

19-Jun-1595                   25-May-1606                  28-Feb-1644

Mother name:              Father name:               

Mata Ganga Ji               Guru Arjan Dev Ji                   

Major life highlights:

  • Prakash Purab as per Sikh calendar:  Harh Vadi 7th (21 Harh), Samvat 1652

  • Joti Jot Diwas as per Sikh calendar: Chet Sudhi 5th (6th Chet Samvat 1701)

  • Instituted the practice of maintaining armed legion of Sikh warrior-saints

  • Wore two swords, one of Spiritual Power – Piri and the other of Military Power – Miri. Now the Sikh became “Saint-Soldier.” 

  • Waged wars against rulers Jahangir and Shah Jahan

  • Revealed Sri Akal Takht Sahib also known as Akal Bunga (Tuineless Throned) just in front of Sri Harmandir Sahib (Golden Temple) in 1609. This place is the highest commanding seat of the sikhs. 

  • On the release of Gur Sahib fron Jahangir's prison and reaching Amritsar, the Sikh Nation began to celebrate Dewali festival as ” Bandi Chhor Diwas ”.

8. Guru Har Krishan Ji

Prakash Purab             Gurta Gaddi Diwas      Joti Jot Diwas  

7-Jul-1656                       6-Oct-1661                     30-Mar-1664

Mother name:              Father name:               

Mata Krishan Ji            Guru Har Rai Ji                   

Major life highlights:

  • Prakash Purab as per Sikh calendar: Sawan Vadi 10, (8 Sawan), Bikrami Samvat 1713

  • Joti Jot Diwas as per Sikh calendar: Chet Sudi 14,(3rd Vaisakh), Bikrami Samvat 1721,

  • Forcibly summoned to Delhi (the imperial capital of Aurangzeb) under framed charges

  • End of worldly journey happened at the the age of 8 due to smallpox, which he contracted while healing the sick people during an epidemic.

10. Guru Gobind Singh Ji

Prakash Purab             Gurta Gaddi Diwas      Joti Jot Diwas

22-Dec-1666                  11-Nov-1675                  7-Oct-1708

Mother name:              Father name:               

Mata Gujari Ji               Guru Teg Bahadur Ji

(Also known as Mata Gujar Kaur Ji)               

Major life highlights:

  • Prakash Purab as per Sikh calendar: Poh Sudi Saptmi Samvat 1723 

  • Joti Jot Diwas as per Sikh calendar:

  • Founded Khalsa in 1699

  • Established the Panj Pyare 

  • Was a great poet and an unmatched warrior

  • Composed many baani's like Jaap Sahib, Chaupai Sahib, Tav Prasad Savaiye

  • Fought 14 battles against local Kings and Mughal King Aurangzeb for the 'Dharma' and did not loose any
    Institutionalised the Sikh Rehat Mariyada (Code of conduct

  • Last Sikh Guru in human form

  • Passed the Guruship of the Sikhs to the Guru Granth Sahib

More on Sikhism

To know more about Sikhism, you may go to any of the below websites.

*Note: These external links are for reference only and we do not have any authority or legal obligations on their contents.

Char Sahibzaade

The word "Sahibzada" means "son" in Punjabi (Language) and is a term commonly used to refer to the 4 sons of Guru Gobind Singh, the tenth Sikh Guru. 

The younger pair, called the "Chotta Sahibzade" were martyred together by the Mughals in Sirhind at the tender age of 6 and 9 years old. The older sahibzade, called the "Vaada Sahibzade" died fighting the enemy of many thousands at the young age of 18 and 14 years old in battle at Chamkaur Sahib.

The 21st and 26th of December are days that hold very dear memories for Sikhs around the world, for it was on these days in 1705 that the older sahibzade Baba Ajit Singh and Baba Jujhar Singh first set off for their heaven abode on the 21st and then on the 26th, as the delicate and tender light of the younger Sahibzade, Baba Zorawar Singh and Baba Fateh Singh was cruelly and inhumanely extinguished by the Mughal ruler of Sirhind. Name of Sahibzade:

  1. Sahibzada Ajit Singh

  2. Sahibzada Jujhar Singh

  3. Sahibzada Zorawar Singh

  4. Sahibzada Fateh Singh

Panj Pyare

Panj Pyare refers to the five beloved ones collectively.

​The Panj Pyare are beloved by Sikhs because the tenth guru of the Sikhs Gobind Rai called to a crowd of thousands who had assembled on the day of ​Vaisakhi, asking for volunteers who would give him their heads. Five men came forward:

  1. Bhai Daya Singh

  2. Bhai Dharam Singh

  3. Bhai Himmat Singh

  4. Bhai Mukham Singh 

  5. Bhai Sahib Singh


The original five beloved panj pyare, performed the first Amrit/Baptist initiation ceremony of the Sikhs, in April of 1699, and baptized Guru Gobind Rai as Guru Gobind Singh of the Khalsa order. Since that day, the panj pyare play an important role in all Sikh activities.

Sikh Way Of Life
  • Sikh means  'disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner'.

  • Sikhism or Sikhi is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent around the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major religions and world's fifth-largest organized religion, with about 30 million Sikhs as of the early 21st century.

  • Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469–1539), and the nine Sikh Gurus that succeeded him. The tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and establishing the scripture as the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs. Guru Nanak taught that living an "active, creative, and practical life" of "truthfulness, fidelity, self-control and purity" is above the metaphysical truth, and that the ideal man is one who "establishes union with God, knows His Will, and carries out that Will."

Sikh Greetings

The Khalsa belongs to God and all victory belongs to God 

Waheguru Ji Ka Khalsa Waheguru Ji Ki Fateh II

God is Truth

Sat Sri Akal

Contemplating God's names. Meditating on God's name to control the five evils and living a satisfying life.

Work diligently. Earning/making a living honestly, without exploitation or fraud

3. Wand Chhakna

Sharing with others, helping those with less or those who are in need. Dasvandh literally means a "tenth part" and refers to the practice among Sikhs of contributing in the name of the Guru(God), one-tenth of their earnings towards the common resources of the community. 

Core Principles of Sikhism
Few more facts on Sikhism 
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